Antibiotics should not be used for every infectious disease in children.
It is possible to reduce infectious diseases, which increase with the winter season and spread especially among children in schools, with protective measures taken by both schools and parents. The most important of these; rhino virus, parainfluenza and RSV virus, which is especially seen in children going to nursery. Anadolu Health Center Child Health and Diseases Specialist Dr. While Ayşe Sokullu said, “The ideal precaution for children who are infected with any infectious disease is to rest at home and not go to school so that they do not transmit the infection to other children.” Anadolu Health Center Child Health and Diseases Specialist Dr. N. Kemal Akpınar said, “The overprotective attitudes of parents prevent the child from meeting natural microorganisms. “This may cause the child’s response to those microorganisms to remain at a lower level and cause more severe infections.”
Anadolu Health Center Child Health and Diseases Specialist Dr. stated that it is much easier for us to take precautions against infections as long as our children are with us, and that the situation is more difficult for parents when it comes to schools where there is no chance to intervene. Ayşe Sokullu and Anadolu Health Center Child Health and Diseases Specialist Dr. N. Kemal Akpınar “Parainfluenza virus affects areas close to the vocal cords and can cause a cough similar to the sound of a dog barking. While rhino virus mostly affects the nose, it causes symptoms especially with headaches. Measles and rubella, which are also transmitted through respiratory tract, are “kissing disease” What we call “infectious mononucleosis”, parvovirus and chickenpox can cause rashes in various parts of the body. In addition, some illnesses related to chickenpox, such as measles-related pneumonia, may occur. In virus infections affecting the gastrointestinal system, there is a watery stool (feces) output. “While this gives symptoms as fever and vomiting, if there is a bacterial infection, high fever is accompanied by blood and slimy appearance,” he said.
It is possible to control children by asking them questions about hygiene.
Children’s Health and Diseases Specialist Dr. emphasizes that children’s eating habits, behaviors and attitudes to be taken when they are sick, or precautions to be taken before getting sick are easier at home than at school. Ayşe Sokullu Dr. N. Kemal Akpınar “However, parents should not give up control even if they cannot see their children at school. It is almost impossible to get children to talk about what they experienced at school. Therefore, while doing this, indirect questions can be asked to children coming home from school. For example; “Are you washing your hands?” instead, “Does your soap smell nice at school?”, “Do they clean your classroom?” instead, “What is the name of the aunt/uncle who cleans your classroom?” “Possible wrong attitudes should be intervened with questions such as these that will test both the child and the school about hygiene.”
Children with infectious diseases should rest at home
Emphasizing that the risk of infection is higher in crowded schools where children have difficulty accessing toilets and water, Dr. Ayşe Sokullu and Dr. N. Kemal Akpınar “Because infections are mostly transmitted by hand. In particular, flu viruses can survive for nearly 24 hours on some items that children touch at school, such as plastic or wood. Viruses that are mostly transmitted by droplet infection; It lives in pieces of saliva suspended in the air by coughing and sneezing.
Therefore, when it is crowded, it becomes easier for children to breathe this air. The ideal precaution is for children who are infected with any infectious disease to rest at home and not go to school to avoid transmitting the infection to other children. It is also very important that children do not kiss or hug their sick friends at school during the winter period, when diseases increase, and that they do not use the materials used by their sick friends. Generally, with rest, fluid and nutritional support, upper respiratory tract infections can be overcome in a week without medication. However, if there is difficulty in lowering the child’s fever and providing nutritional support, if vomiting occurs, and if there is a family history of seizures, home treatment management will be difficult. At this point, it is more appropriate to have the treatment in a well-equipped health center. “Since it is difficult to give oral medication for treatment, antipyretics are given intravenously to help the child recover in a shorter time,” he said.
Firstborn children get sick more often
Dr. stated that school-age children’s susceptibility to microorganisms that cause infection may vary depending on some attitudes of their parents. Ayşe Sokullu and Dr. N. Kemal Akpınar “Overprotective attitudes; For example, preventing children from playing in the park, on the street or in the garden also prevents them from meeting nature’s microorganisms. This may cause children’s response to those microorganisms to remain at a lower level and cause severe infections. The earlier the child is introduced to microorganisms, the easier it is for him to overcome the infections he will encounter at school age. Second children are usually sick in infancy but are not very sick when they start school. The reason for this is that his older brother or sister brought diseases home from school when he was a baby, and because of these diseases he had as a baby, he became immune to the diseases he would encounter at school age. However, when first children enter kindergarten or primary school, they encounter bacteria because they enter a crowded environment for the first time, and they experience infections more often at school.”
Antibiotic treatment should not be given to every infection.
Explaining that exercise is extremely beneficial in strengthening the immune system against infections, as in everything else, Anadolu Health Center Child Health and Diseases Specialist Dr. Ayşe Sokullu and Dr. N. Kemal Akpınar continued: “However, since children are very active, it seems like they have already exercised. In addition, sending the child to an activity such as basketball, swimming or football for 1-2 hours once a week should be considered a hobby, not a sport. Because exercise is an activity done regularly throughout the day. Regular exercise is very beneficial for the development of children and strengthening the immune system. In upper respiratory tract infections, for example, if the child has a high fever, is lethargic and loses appetite, but does not have a runny nose or cough, and if a bacterial infection is detected on examination, antibiotics can sometimes be given early. However, if the child’s fever is at 40 degrees, there is a runny nose, cough, loss of appetite, malaise, a pink appearance in the throat and swollen tonsils, the child should be expected to overcome it with his own resistance. Because these symptoms belong to a virus infection and injection treatment with antibiotics should not be applied. If the child’s immune system is weak, bacterial factors may settle on the ground where viruses are present. Accordingly, diseases such as sinusitis, otitis media, pneumonia and bronchitis may also be observed. This is due to the potential for easy infection by opportunistic microorganisms. In this case, we can say that antibiotic treatment is required. There is an immune system war in children infected with virus infections. Some children can overcome this battle in 1-2 days, some in 10 days. However, there are no scientific studies showing that the immune system of those who recover early is stronger and those who recover late are weaker. Every child – especially under the age of 5-6 – is likely to have a fever or infection at least once. However, in a child who has frequent tonsil infections, falls into bed because of this, and even develops bronchitis and pneumonia, recurrent diarrhea, osteomyelitis (bone inflammation, joint inflammation), which is not often seen in a normally healthy individual, recurrent meningitis, bronchitis and pneumonia, “Is there a weakness in the immune system?” ?” It brings to mind the question. “In such cases, and in children who are developmentally behind their peers, it may be necessary to conduct some examinations.”
A glass of milk a day protects children
Dr. states that a glass of milk a day is necessary for bone development, general health and height growth, especially in primary school children. Ayşe Sokullu and Dr. N. Kemal Akpınar “If the child does not have a special reaction to milk, he/she should be supported with a glass of milk a day. “A second glass of milk can be given if the child wishes, but more should not be given as it may suppress appetite and cause constipation or anemia,” he said.
NUTRITIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS TO PROTECT AGAINST INFECTIONS
To strengthen the immune system in school-age children;
• You should definitely start the day with breakfast and take some carbohydrates, protein and fat. For this; Fruit yoghurt, cereal mix or a home-made cake that is not too sugary is suitable. It is also important to sweeten your breakfast for the daily calories needed; Molasses and honey may be on the menu.
• Especially in winter; In terms of fiber content, pears, citrus fruits rich in vitamin C, and at least one of the greens (spinach, chard, broccoli, parsley dishes) should be eaten.
• At least one of the dairy products such as cheese, milk or yoghurt should be preferred. Additionally, yoghurt should not be eaten alongside foods rich in iron. Otherwise, the iron value of the food will decrease.
• Since corn flakes contain sugar, they can be eaten as long as they are not consumed too much.
• Some beneficial herbs such as mint can be added to the meals.
• Prepackaged foods and candies should be avoided (In this sense, children should not be allowed to watch junk food advertisements).
• Vitamin D supplementation should be given to children who have not been exposed to the sun much.
• Foods rich in Omega 3, such as fish, should be eaten twice a week, but there is no obligation to take Omega 3 tablets during the winter. Omega 3 supplements can be made with fish oil during special periods, stressful situations such as exams, or when there is a periodic malnutrition.
• Dried fruits and nuts should be eaten.