Nose Bleeding: What is it, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment
Nosebleed is blood loss in the tissue lining the inside of the nose. Nosebleeds are common. Because the nose’s location in the middle of the face and the large number of blood vessels on its inner surface near the surface make it an easy target for injury and nosebleeds. These blood vessels have a structure that can bleed easily. Air passing through the nose can dry and irritate the membranes lining the inside of the nose. But most nosebleeds are not serious and can be treated at home. But some should be checked by a doctor. Because in some cases, nosebleeds can be an early sign of other medical problems. This is especially the case for bleeding in the back of the nose. It should not be forgotten that nose bleeding can be stopped at home in some cases, but it can also be a sign of serious conditions.
What is Nose Bleeding?
It is blood loss from the tissue inside your nose. There are two types of nosebleeds. These are anterior nosebleed and posterior nosebleed. However, although posterior nosebleeds are not common, they require medical attention. Most anterior nosebleeds occur at the entrance of the nasal cavity. Because the anterior nose is exposed to extreme heat and cold, high and low humidity, and is easily traumatized. Types of nosebleeds are:
- Anterior nosebleed: It occurs in the front part of the nose and blood flows out of the nostrils. It is common in society, but it does not usually indicate a serious disease.
- Posterior nosebleed: Bleeding that occurs near the throat and behind the nose. It can cause blood to flow backwards and is rare.
- Nosebleeds are very common, especially in children and people over the age of 65. This condition can be annoying for children, but can usually be stopped easily with first aid and does not cause longer-term problems. There are several causes of nosebleeds, but they are rarely cause for concern. Nosebleeds that are not caused by disease can be prevented by the following methods:
- Using a humidifier in dry weather
- keeping the nose moist
- Avoiding contact inside the nose
- Especially to prevent children from inserting foreign objects into the nose
What are the causes of nose bleeding?
Nosebleeds are caused by rupture of blood vessels in the nasal mucosa. In some cases, underlying health conditions and less common events can cause nosebleeds. Common causes of nosebleeds include:
- Getting hit in the face
- liver disease
- Touch the inside of the nose
- blowing one’s nose hard
- Infection in the nose, throat, or sinuses
- Antipyretic drugs
- blood thinning medications
- nasal sprays
- Humid hot or cold weather
- nasal polyps
If a nosebleed is caused by a foreign object entering the nose, in addition to the bleeding, there may be pain or itching, smelly discharge from one nostril, and bad breath. If bleeding is caused by hay fever, nose itching, sneezing and itching in the eyes may also accompany the bleeding. Nose bleeding can also occur without external influence. For example, when the mucous membrane, a mucus-secreting tissue inside the nose, becomes dry, crusted, or cracked, it causes bleeding. Nosebleeds are common in people with bleeding disorders as well as in people taking anticoagulant medications.
Nose Bleeding Treatment
If bleeding occurs in the front part of the nose, some applications can help stop the bleeding in a short time. Especially in children, crying at the sight of blood can complicate the situation and cause increased bleeding. Therefore, first of all, the bleeding child must be calmed. Whether a child or an adult, it is important to sit upright in case of bleeding. While sitting upright, the head should be tilted slightly forward to prevent blood from flowing backwards. However, if the bleeding does not stop after a while or if it recurs after stopping, this may be a situation that requires medical intervention.
If the bleeding is in the back of the nose or if there is recurrent bleeding, medical attention may be required. However, for treatment, it is first necessary to diagnose where the problem originates in the nose. Nosebleeds are usually diagnosed by looking at the symptoms. The doctor will ask some questions and perform a brief examination to try to determine the causes of the nosebleed. For this, first the inside of the nose is physically examined. If necessary, the inside of the nose can be visualized with endoscopy, tomography or x-ray. Apart from these, if it is suspected that nosebleeds have developed as a result of another disease, blood tests may be requested. If you have frequent nosebleeds or certain risk factors, the doctor may want to do further investigation. Apart from blood tests, they may deem it appropriate to refer the person to an ear, nose and throat specialist.
After diagnosis, if there is bleeding due to the rupture of a blood vessel, the vessel is heated and burned with a procedure called cauterization. In this way, the open part of the vein is closed. At the same time, in non-serious cases, bleeding can be stopped by applying a tampon into the nose.
In Which Case Should You Apply to a Health Institution?
Most nosebleeds are usually mild and do not last long. With a little patience and pressure, almost all uncomplicated anterior nosebleeds can be stopped. Even rare nosebleeds that require physician care can often be treated successfully with cauterization, packing, or other options. If there are symptoms other than nosebleeds, such as recurrent infections and bruising, this may be due to a blood disease. Therefore, it should be checked by a doctor as soon as possible. But some people who have excessive bleeding, have multiple medical problems, or are taking anticoagulant medications may need to be hospitalized to treat a nosebleed. It is recommended to seek immediate medical attention in the following situations:
- Injury due to a blow to the nose
- Very heavy bleeding
- having difficulty breathing
- Nose bleeding lasting longer than 15 minutes
- Occurrence in a child under 2 years of age
- Use of blood thinning medication
- Nose bleeding accompanied by vomiting blood
Nosebleeds can be uncomfortable, but they’re usually nothing to worry about. However, frequent or unusually heavy nosebleeds should always be taken to a doctor, as doctors will investigate whether there is an underlying medical condition causing the bleeding.
If nose bleeding does not stop using first aid measures, it is necessary to go to the emergency room. Additionally, if blood continues to leak from the nose, especially if there is persistent nasal congestion or a foul-smelling nasal discharge, the healthcare provider should be contacted again. In older people, especially smokers, these may be symptoms of a tumor in the nose or sinuses. In a young child, these may be signs of a foreign object lodged in the nostril. Therefore, nosebleeds are a medical condition that requires attention.
If a child under 2 years of age has a nosebleed, if you experience nosebleeds regularly, if you have heart palpitations, if you have symptoms of anemia such as shortness of breath and pale skin, if you are using a blood thinner or if your nosebleed lasts longer than 10 to 15 minutes, if the bleeding is excessive, If you swallow a large amount of blood that causes the patient to vomit, or if bleeding begins after a blow to your head, you should contact a healthcare institution as soon as possible for emergency intervention.