Ovulation Period: What is it, Symptoms, Calculation Method
Ovulation period is the period in which women’s eggs, which have reached a certain maturity, are released from the ovaries. Ovulation is an important part of the menstrual cycle and plays an important role in helping women get pregnant. There are some symptoms that indicate that the ovulation period has come. When women want to become pregnant, they can follow these symptoms and choose the most suitable time to become pregnant with a certain calculation method. You can read the rest of the article to learn more about the ovulation period.
What is the Ovulation Period?
Ovulation is one of the stages of the menstrual cycle when the ovaries release an egg. Menstrual cycle; Menstruation consists of 4 consecutive phases: follicular phase, ovulation and luteal phase. In the menstrual cycle that generally occurs every 28 days, ovulation occurs 14 days before the first day of the next menstrual cycle. Once released, the egg first moves down the fallopian tube, where it waits for 12 to 14 hours to be fertilized by a sperm. If a live and suitable sperm comes to the fallopian tube during this period, it can fertilize the egg. The fertilized egg begins to move into the uterus and attaches to the inner surface of the uterus after about a week. Thus, pregnancy occurs; However, if no sperm arrives during the time the egg waits in the fallopian tube, the egg disintegrates and the uterine lining is expelled along with the blood during menstruation.
Generally, when menstruation begins, the ovulation period is reset. Menstruation is the beginning of the follicular phase in which the new egg matures and is released during ovulation. During the follicular phase, the body secretes follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) to help the egg in the ovaries mature and become ready for release. After the egg matures, luteinizing hormone (LH) is secreted to trigger the release of the egg.
When Does the Ovulation Period Start in Women?
Ovulation, or ovulation as it is called in the medical literature, is one of the changes that occur in women’s bodies after puberty. Ovulation is the period in the menstrual cycle when a woman is most fertile, and the probability of becoming pregnant is higher during this period. Ovulation occurs 28 to 36 hours after the LH surge, usually 14 days after the start of the menstrual cycle. For this process to begin, gonadotropin hormone (GnRH) must be secreted from the hypothalamus. Gonadotropin hormone ensures the secretion of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland. Between days 6 and 14 of the menstrual cycle, the FSH hormone causes the follicles in the ovary to begin to mature. Between days 10 and 14 of the menstrual cycle, only one of the maturing follicles develops into a fully mature egg. On the 14th day of the menstrual cycle, the increase in the LH hormone causes the release of the mature egg from the ovary, called ovulation.
After ovulation, the luteal phase begins. During this period, a hormone called progesterone is secreted to prepare the uterus for pregnancy. If pregnancy occurs at this stage, the hormones secreted prevent the shedding of the uterine lining. If pregnancy does not occur, the lining is shed on the 28th day and the cycle is reset. However, the time and duration of this cycle may vary from person to person and various factors can change the course of this cycle.
What are the Ovulation Period Symptoms?
The approaching ovulation period reveals itself with various symptoms. Ovulation usually occurs on day 14 of a 28-day period counted from the first day of the menstrual cycle. However, a normal cycle duration can vary between 21 and 35 days. The amount of vaginal discharge may increase during ovulation. Vaginal discharge during this period usually has a clear and flexible form and can sometimes resemble egg white. After the ovulation period, the discharge may be more dense and cloudy in color. Additionally, a decrease in the amount of discharge may be observed. Additionally, an increase in the body’s basal temperature may occur. Basal temperature can be defined as the temperature of the body at rest. In general, the symptoms that develop during the ovulation period can be listed as follows:
- Bleeding or spotting
- Tenderness felt in the breasts
- Increased sexual drive
- swelling in the abdomen
- Pain in the groin area
Although these symptoms occur generally, they may not be seen in every woman. Therefore, these symptoms are not one of the primary methods used to understand the ovulation period.
It is common to feel pain during ovulation. Women in an ovulatory cycle may experience some pain towards the middle of the cycle. The amount of this pain may vary from person to person. Pain can usually occur every month. When the menstrual cycle comes, there may be pain in the right or left ovarian area, depending on which ovary releases an egg that month. The pain may be aching or cramping. When the pain is very severe, help can be sought from a healthcare provider to make it easier to cope with the pain. In rare cases, pain may be a sign of another underlying disorder. Underlying diseases may include:
- Scar tissue in the abdominal area
- Sexually transmitted diseases
If there is irregularity in the menstrual cycle, this may indicate that there is no ovulation every month. In such cases, you can consult your doctor for a regular menstrual cycle and ovulation process.
Ovulation Period Calculation
It can sometimes be difficult to determine when you are ovulating. There are several methods women use to track their menstrual cycle and calculate ovulation. Using all of these methods regularly can help get the most accurate results. These methods can be listed as follows:
- Menstrual cycle: If the menstrual cycle occurs every 28 days, ovulation occurs in the middle, on the 14th day. However, normal cycle times can vary between 21 and 35. In such cases, the individual ovulates again in the middle of this cycle. Every woman has a unique ovulation process. Therefore, the calculation method should be specific to the individual. Writing down your menstrual cycle for several months on paper, a calendar, or a phone app can be helpful in calculating your ovulation period. It can also be useful to detect a possible abnormal condition.
- Calendar Method: The calendar method can be used to calculate the ovulation period. Women can calculate their menstrual cycle for six months to determine when they are fertile. In this process, it determines the longest and shortest menstrual cycle and subtracts 18 days from the longest period and 11 days from the shortest period. These two numbers give you the best day of your menstrual cycle when you are most fertile.
- Cervical Mucus: This mucus is a fluid produced by the vagina. Cervical mucus is thick, dry and cloudy before ovulation begins. However, just before ovulation, this fluid becomes clear and fluid. Thanks to this fluid mucus, sperm can reach the egg more easily.
- Basal Body Temperature: During the ovulation period, body temperature may rise slowly. Generally, these values can vary between 0.5 and 1 degree. To calculate the ovulation period, women measure their basal body temperature when they wake up in the morning and record the results for a few days to determine their most fertile period.
- Ovulation Kits: These kits work similar to pregnancy tests. Before ovulation, the LH hormone level rises. This kit, which has an indicator on it, measures the amount of LH in the urine. In this way, the ovulation period can be calculated.
Calculating the menstrual cycle and ovulation period is important for women who want to become pregnant. Additionally, this calculation can help detect irregularities in the menstrual cycle. Menstrual irregularity can cause psychological and physiological problems in women. If you want to get information about the ovulation period or if you think there is an irregularity in your menstrual cycle, do not forget to consult your doctor to get information or to find out the underlying cause and get treatment.