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What is Blood Pressure? Symptoms of High and Low Blood Pressure


What is Blood Pressure? Symptoms of High and Low Blood Pressure

The heart constantly pumps blood to the body through the aorta. During this pumping process, blood is sent into the vein under pressure. The pressure on the inner walls of the vessels is defined as blood pressure. Blood pressure, which can also be defined as blood pressure, is extremely important for tissues and organs to receive adequate blood supply and to maintain their vital functions. Every time the heart contracts, it pumps blood to the arteries with a certain pressure, and when the heart muscle relaxes, some pressure remains in the vessels. These two types of pressure are called systolic and diastolic pressure. Although blood pressure varies from person to person, on average systolic blood pressure is expected to be between 90 and 120 mm Hg, and diastolic blood pressure is expected to be between 60 and 80 mm Hg. Low blood pressure, defined as hypotension, usually does not cause any harm and rarely causes symptomatic findings. However, a sudden drop in blood pressure may cause symptoms such as headache and fatigue. High blood pressure is defined as hypertension and can lead to more serious health problems than low blood pressure. Before moving on to blood pressure types, it is important to understand what blood pressure means.

What is Blood Pressure?

The heart works non-stop and sends the clean blood necessary for the body to the tissues and organs; It also provides nourishment to the whole body by collecting dirty blood whose oxygen level has decreased. This condition, which occurs when the heart muscle constantly contracts and relaxes, is achieved through the circulatory system. Every time the heart contracts, the valves open and blood is sent to the arteries and from there to all the veins. Meanwhile, pressure builds up in the blood vessels. This pressure is defined in medical terms as systolic pressure, or in other words, high blood pressure. As the heart muscle relaxes, the pressure level on the vessels decreases. The enlarged veins maintain blood flow by applying pressure to the blood. However, during this period there is still some pressure in the blood vessels. This pressure is called diastolic pressure, or in medical terms, diastolic pressure. Blood pressure measurement is measured in mm Hg with a device defined as a sphygmomanometer. Since the conditions during blood pressure measurement significantly affect blood pressure, the measurement should be made after 5 minutes of rest. Blood pressure measurement after meals and exercise may be lower than normal, and after coffee consumption or smoking may be higher than normal. Therefore, the person should stay away from these activities for half an hour before blood pressure measurement.

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Blood Pressure Types

There are two different types of blood pressure:

Hypotension (Low blood pressure)

An abnormal decrease in blood pressure, or commonly known as low blood pressure, is defined as hypotension. It occurs when systolic blood pressure is below 90 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure is below 60 mm Hg. This condition, which mostly does not cause any symptoms in the person, does not require treatment. However, a sudden drop in blood pressure can cause mild or severe symptoms. Hypotension may occur due to reasons such as excessive sweating, dehydration, diarrhea, malnutrition, allergic reactions, stress, pregnancy, hormonal imbalance, some cardiovascular diseases, anemia, blood loss, as well as the use of some medications. Hypotension most often occurs in three different ways:

  • Orthostatic Hypotension: Orthostatic hypotension, which can be seen in all age groups, generally affects weak and unhealthy elderly people. This situation, which occurs when there is a change in body position, such as suddenly standing up from sitting, can cause the person to feel dizzy and their eyes to darken. This situation, which usually lasts a few seconds, may be a sign of some health problems.
  • Neurally Mediated Hypotension: This condition, which is more common in children and young people than in other age groups, develops due to the person standing for a long time. It causes symptoms such as dizziness and fainting.
  • Shock-Induced Hypotension: Hypotension that occurs in situations that cause a person to go into shock, such as trauma, burns, poisoning, sudden blood loss, can be life-threatening and requires urgent medical attention.
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Hypertension (High blood pressure)

Blood pressure above 130/80 mm Hg is defined as hypertension, or in other words, high blood pressure. This disorder, which has a prevalence of 30% to 45% in the population, is a condition that must be kept under control. There are two different types of hypertension: primary and secondary hypertension. In primary hypertension, which is seen in approximately 90% of the population, there is no focal disease that causes blood pressure to rise. Secondary hypertension is seen in approximately 10% and high blood pressure is caused by a different underlying health problem. Frequently asked “What is good for blood pressure?” Before answering the question, it is necessary to answer the question “What are the symptoms of hypertension?”

Symptoms of Increased Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

Having a family history of high blood pressure, being over 40 years old, diabetes and smoking are among the factors that increase the risk of hypertension. Headache, dizziness, tinnitus, weakness, shortness of breath, blurred vision, frequent urination, nosebleeds, heart pain or irregular heart rhythm are among the symptoms of hypertension. Hypertension, which has negative effects on organs such as the heart, brain, kidney and eye, causes deformation in the arteries over time. Hypertension, which can cause serious health problems such as cerebral hemorrhage, heart attack, stroke, kidney failure, occlusion in the brain vessels and blindness, must be kept under control.

What is Good for Increased Blood Pressure?

When blood pressure is high, the person must see a doctor and receive treatment. Patients who are diagnosed for the first time and whose treatment is started should have their first medical check-up within 2 to 4 weeks. During the first check-up, the physician may change the dosage or method of use of the medications. Afterwards, a physician should be checked once every 6 months. In the presence of high blood pressure, a change in lifestyle is a must. Quitting smoking, balancing weight according to body mass index, increasing salt consumption to 6 grams per day. It is extremely important to limit exercise and exercise regularly. Potassium from fresh fruits and vegetables is also good for high blood pressure. Apart from all these, taking foods such as unsalted buttermilk, pomegranate juice, grapefruit, garlic, thyme and lemon juice may be recommended to balance blood pressure.

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Symptoms of Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)

Although hypotension usually does not cause symptoms, in some cases it can cause symptoms such as dizziness, nausea, vomiting, weakness, shortness of breath, excessive sweating, depression, drop in body temperature, fainting and shortness of breath. If symptoms of low blood pressure are observed, it is important to consult a physician and investigate the causes.

What is Good for Low Blood Pressure?

Folic acid and vitamin B12 deficiency due to malnutrition, diabetes, heart diseases, dehydration, internal bleeding, excessive blood loss and the use of some medications can cause low blood pressure. Increasing the consumption of salty buttermilk, carrot juice, olives, grapes, ginger, basil and water may be good for low blood pressure.

Blood Pressure During Pregnancy

High blood pressure is seen in approximately 10% of pregnant women. While high blood pressure that exists before pregnancy or occurs before the fifth month of pregnancy is considered chronic hypotension, high blood pressure, known as pregnancy blood pressure, is mostly seen after the fifth month of pregnancy. Pregnancy hypertension, which is seen with symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, decrease in the amount of urine, double vision, rapid weight gain, and difference in liver and kidney functions, can lead to pregnancy poisoning (Preeclampsia). Therefore, it is extremely important to control blood pressure throughout pregnancy. In mild cases, expectant mothers are advised to rest, while in more severe cases, medication may be required.


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