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What is Hemogram (Complete Blood Count)?

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What is Hemogram (Complete Blood Count)?

Today, the first evaluation used to detect most diseases is a blood test. Complete blood count, CBC or hemogram test is performed on many patients every day in hospitals and provides important information for both diagnosis and follow-up. The interpretation of blood tests by specialist physicians, their evaluation together with the patient’s history, and the consideration of other diseases shed light on the treatment to be applied by the physician. Thanks to the hemogram test, the normal number of cell groups in the blood is compared with the patient’s cell number. In some pathological conditions, diseases can be diagnosed by the cells that appear or the increase in the number of these cells. Guidance information for many treatments can be obtained in a laboratory environment with a few milliliters of blood taken from the patient.

What is a Hemogram?

Important information about the body can be deduced from blood fluid, disease can be diagnosed, and enlightening data can be obtained for the path to treatment. For this reason, cells in the blood are examined in a laboratory environment and provide important data for physicians. The values ​​obtained as a result of the hemogram must be interpreted by a specialist physician. Because any value in the patient may be high or low, but whether this situation corresponds to a pathological problem can only be understood with the experience of a specialist physician. The fact that the same value is at the same rate in different patients does not mean that both patients have the same disease. This comparison can be made by a physician who makes a decision by evaluating the history of both patients.

The blood is taken from the patient in a sterile manner and a sufficient amount is taken into a purple-capped tube and sent to the biochemistry laboratory and tested by expert laboratories. The values ​​measured by hemogram are the amount of blood cells and the ratio of cells. Blood cells and other parameters examined in the hemogram are:

  • Erythrocyte (red blood cells or red blood cells)-RBC

  • Leukocyte (white blood cells)-WBC

  • Hemoglobin-HGB

  • Hematocrit-HTC

  • Thrombocyte (thrombocyte)-PLT

  • Erythrocyte indices (MCH, MHCH, MCV, RDV)

  • Leukocyte indices (neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, basophil, eosinophil)

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The above parameters have reference ranges determined and accepted according to the healthy male and female bodies. If values ​​outside this reference range, which is considered healthy, are observed, the physician can follow the patient or plan treatment if necessary. The range of these criteria is as follows (1):

  • Erythrocyte: Between 4.4-6.4 cells in 1 liter of blood

  • Hemoglobin: 1 deciliter contains 12.8-19 grams

  • Hematocrit: Approximately 38-55%

  • MCH (mean cell hemoglobin amount): 24.8-32.8 pictograms

  • MHCH (mean cell hemoglobin concentration): 32.2-35.2 grams in 1 deciliter of blood

  • MVC (mean erythrocyte volume): 75.7-95.6 femtoliters

  • RDW (erythrocyte distribution width): 11.3-15.2%

  • PLT (platelet): 150 thousand-450 thousand cells in 1 milliliter of blood

  • Neu (neutrophil): 28-63.3%

  • Mon(monocyte): 3.4-13.3%

  • Bas (basophil): 0.3-1.1%

  • Lym (lymphocyte): 27.2-60%

  • Eos (eosinophil): 1.1-11.9%

Values ​​related to each blood cell and their ratio can give some ideas about diseases. Some parameters may directly suggest the disease. A wide range of diseases, from immune system to bone marrow diseases, can be diagnosed quickly thanks to blood tests.

How is Hemogram (Complete Blood Count) Done?

With the hemogram, called the complete blood count test, the cells in the blood under normal conditions or those that appear during disease and the number of these cells are determined. In some cases, too much increase in cells normally present in the body can be a sign of diseases. Hemogram test parameters are one of the first parameters checked when physicians want a full examination for the patient. The blood required for the blood test is usually taken from a vein in the forearm. The amount of blood taken intravenously is approximately 2 mL. The values ​​measured in the hemogram test do not change with hunger and satiety. Since hemogram parameters usually reveal long-term diseases, the fact that the patient is fasting will not affect the result of the test.

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When blood is collected with a syringe, patients may see tubes with different cap colors. The purpose of use of these tubes, especially the thick solvent at the bottom of the tubes, and the data to be obtained from each tube are different. Therefore, depending on the color of the caps of the tubes, the ratio of which cells or values ​​in the blood content will be determined is distinguished. The hemogram test requires patient blood taken by injection into purple-capped tubes. Hemogram tubes may sometimes be called EDTA tubes. Because there is a viscous solvent called EDTA at the bottom of the purple cap-coloured tubes required for the hemogram test. If it is thought that the blood will wait for a while in the biochemistry laboratory, solvent is added to the tube to prevent clotting during this period. Although hemogram tubes are called EDTA tubes, this term is not entirely correct since EDTA-containing tubes were used in different studies. After taking blood intravenously, the cap of the tube should be closed and the tube should be inverted once. All should not be shaken. Then, the Hemogram tube is taken to the biochemistry laboratory and the desired values ​​are checked.

When is a hemogram performed?

Patients who are requested to have a hemogram test may present with some common symptoms. Because the values ​​measured by hemogram are directly related to blood cells. Blood production takes place in the marrow, which has a channel-like structure inside the bone in adult individuals. Since there is blood production in the bone marrow, bone marrow diseases can be evident in a blood test and the diagnosis of these diseases can be faster. Hemogram testing may also show seriously abnormal values ​​in pathogenic diseases. In viral, bacterial, parasitic and fungal diseases, the values ​​in the white blood cell group may increase differently. The cells that directly fight pathogens and thereby increase the number of cells are the white blood cell group. Since the immune system works actively when the pathogen enters the body, a hemogram test may also be requested in diseases that directly affect immunity. White blood cells may also increase significantly in immunological cases. The following symptoms may prompt patients to detect these and other diseases that require a complete blood count:

  • long-term fatigue

  • unintentional weight loss

  • Fire

  • Vomiting

  • long-term abdominal pain

  • swelling in the abdomen

  • Bruises on the body of unknown origin

  • gum swelling

  • Pain and swelling in lymph nodes

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Having one of the above symptoms may not indicate any disease. However, if these diseases exist for a long time and there is more than one complaint, a hemogram may be requested.

Which Diseases Is It Used To Diagnose?

Many diseases can be monitored with the hemogram test. It may allow physicians to evaluate whether there are new developments in patient controls. In addition, complete blood count is also beneficial in the early diagnosis of new diseases. Among the diseases that can be detected by the complete blood count test and for which further examination may be requested:

  • Types of myelodysplastic syndromes known as leukemia,

  • heart diseases,

  • diseases caused by pathogen infection,

  • autoimmune disorders, agranulocytosis,

  • blood cell dysfunction such as sickle cell anemia, thalassemia,

  • lymphoma

  • There are diseases such as infections.

Hemogram test is a type of blood cell examination test that is requested when applying to the hospital with certain complaints and guides the preliminary diagnosis of diseases. If there are suspicious criteria on the hemogram, the physician may request further examination. For this reason, blood tests are of undeniable importance in the diagnosis of diseases and in the follow-up of existing diseases. If you have long-term abnormal symptoms, you can be examined by our specialist physicians and have a blood test in our clinic, which offers adequate equipment.

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