What is Interventional Radiology and What are the Treatment Methods?
Today, many new techniques have emerged in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. One of these techniques is interventional radiology.
Today, many new techniques have emerged in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. One of these techniques is interventional radiology. It becomes one of the preferred methods with its many advantages and wide applicability. During interventional radiology procedures, imaging techniques such as x-ray, computed tomography, magnetic resonance (MRI) and ultrasound are used. Procedures are performed through tiny incisions using a puncture needle, guide wires, catheters and sheaths that slide on the guide along with imaging. Interventional radiology, which is called a minimally invasive method rather than surgery, has fewer risks. The availability of interventional radiology is decided by the doctor. You can also review the details to get more information about interventional radiology.
What is Interventional Radiology?
Interventional radiology is a specialty that involves techniques used to image or treat the inside of the body. It covers procedures that can complete or replace surgery through small incisions made on the skin. While performing these procedures, imaging techniques such as angiography, ultrasound and computed tomography are used. Although the procedures are performed instead of procedures that can be performed surgically, they are performed in angiography rooms or normal treatment rooms instead of operating rooms. Interventional radiological procedures are divided into two types. The first is vascular diseases and their treatment, and the second is nonvascular interventional radiology procedures. Interventional radiology, which is used in many fields, cannot be used only for cardiovascular diseases. During the application, the inside of the body is imaged by the interventional radiologist using imaging techniques and the process is followed through screens. There are also procedures in which interventional radiology is commonly used. The field of interventional radiology is also used for procedures such as placing a tube under the vein or skin to receive medications and nutrients, ensuring that coagulating substances are administered directly to the bleeding area, and placing feeding tubes into the stomach.
What Diseases Does Interventional Radiology Treat?
Interventional radiology can deal with all kinds of diseases that occur outside the cardiovascular system. It helps provide treatments such as all needle biopsies, abscess drainage, bile and urinary tract obstructions, and cancer treatments. It helps to eliminate stenosis and blockages with stenting in the field of vascular diseases and treatment. Apart from stenting, balloon angioplasty helps to eliminate vascular occlusions and stenosis with medicated or non-medicated balloons. It can also be used to perform clot removal or vein shaving procedures to remove clots, which is another condition that develops within the vein. Another disease that can cause stenosis and blockage in the vessels is diabetic foot. In patients who develop diabetic foot, relief is provided by removing stenoses and obstructions through interventional radiology. Other diseases in which vascular stenosis and occlusion are treated; dialysis fistula stenosis, Buerger’s disease, myoma embolization, hemorrhoids. Apart from these, it can also be used as an auxiliary treatment in diseases such as stroke treatment, brain bubble (aneurysm) treatment, retinablastoma, and bone cancers.
Interventional radiology is used in cancer treatments or to relieve pain caused by cancers such as bone cancer. Types of cancer for which interventional radiology is used in treatment: bone and soft tissue, breast, kidney, liver, lung and pancreatic cancers. It can be used for situations such as administering chemotherapy drugs or blocking blood flow to the tumor. It is effective not only for treatment but also in the cancer diagnosis process. With needle biopsy, pathological diagnosis is made by taking samples of breast, lung and other types of cancer.
Hepatobiliary Disease Treatments
The term hepatobiliary system refers to the liver, gallbladder, spleen and pancreas. Interventional radiology in hepatobiliary diseases offers treatment options for blocked bile ducts, liver cirrhosis, and end-stage liver failure.
Gynecological Diseases Treatments
Interventional radiology also has procedures applied for women’s health. These procedures are fallopian tube recanalization and pelvic congestion syndrome procedures used for infertility treatment. With fallopian tube catheterization, the fallopian tubes are opened without surgery in the treatment of infertility. In case of life-threatening bleeding after birth, the uterine artery is closed with coagulants to eliminate bleeding.
Male Infertility Treatment
If the cause of male infertility is the dilation of the vessels in the scrotum, interventional radiology plays a role in the treatment. By inserting a stent through embolization, blood flow to the enlarged vessels is reduced and the pressure in the scrotum vessels that causes infertility decreases.
Endocrine System Diseases Treatments
Interventional radiology is used in the ablation of andrenal adenomas, which are hormonal system diseases, in the sampling of adrenal vessels, in parathyroid adenomas, in the treatment and biopsy of thyroid nodules. With bile drainage and stenting, blocked channels are opened and bile is allowed to flow from the liver.
What kind of procedures are performed in Interventional Radiology?
Before the procedure, patients are told not to eat anything and sedatives may be given when necessary. Before starting the procedure, local anesthesia is applied to the area to be treated to eliminate the feeling of pain and the procedure begins. Interventional radiology includes treatment procedures for many diseases. These operations can be listed as follows:
- Percutaneous biopsy of soft tissue, liver and kidney
- Drainage procedures where abscesses and fluids are drained
- Biliary tract interventions, which are catheter or stent placement procedures in bile duct obstructions
- Embolization procedures used to stop bleeding
- Chemoembolization, radioembolization, microwave ablation, malignant stenosis stenting, portal vein embolization procedures applied for cancer treatment
- Thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, portal venous, adrenal venous biopsies
- urinary tract drainage
- Prostate artery embolization
- Removal of liver fluid by biliary drainage
- Pain treatments
- Ablation procedure that destroys targeted cells by applying high-frequency electric current and heat
- Angiography with contrast dye to identify blocked vessels by imaging blood flow
- Providing the biopsy required for the diagnosis of the tumor with a needle
- Placing feeding tubes in people who have problems with oral swallowing and eating to regulate their nutrition
- Vertebroplasty is a procedure in which balloons containing the necessary substances are placed to eliminate the fracture in the treatment of vertebral fractures.
- Radiofrequency ablation to reduce nerve pain
- nephrostomy, a drainage procedure used to open a blocked kidney
Benefits of Interventional Radiology
Interventional radiology causes less pain and blood loss compared to open surgical procedures. Its use also poses less risk for people who are at risk with anesthesia. Interventional radiology has many benefits in terms of treatment method and the diseases it can treat. These:
- Generally, general anesthesia is not needed and procedures can be performed with local anesthesia.
- Applications can be performed through small incisions without large surgical openings.
- These are transactions that can be easily carried out during the day.
- Return to normal life is rapid and hospitalization is not required.
- Thanks to medical imaging technologies, the accuracy of diagnosis and treatment increases by providing good visualization of the treated area.
- The risk of blood loss and infection is low because the contact area is small and sterile.
- Thanks to the thin guides, the possibility of damaging the surrounding healthy parts is low and only the necessary area is treated.
- Since it does not require major operations such as stitching or deep cuts, it causes less pain and bleeding.
- Hospital stay is usually not required.
Positive results are achieved when applied by interventional radiologists who are experts in the field of interventional radiology, which is used in the treatment and diagnosis of many diseases from cancer to vascular occlusion. The imaging techniques and quality used during the procedures are also important for the quality of the procedure. The use of interventional radiology is decided and implemented by the doctor. Guides, catheters and stents are the main equipment used. The imaging method and equipment used for each disease varies. Interventional radiology procedure generally covers treatments performed under the control of imaging techniques.