What is Orthopedics and Traumatology, What Diseases Does It Cover?
Orthopedics and Traumatology is a medical science that dates back many years and has made great progress with the development of modern medicine.
Orthopedics and Traumatology is a medical science that dates back many years and has made great progress with the development of modern medicine. Since the body’s movement system has a very complex structure, any damage, discomfort or injury significantly affects the person’s quality of life. For this reason, Orthopedics and Traumatology specialists, in addition to the diagnosis and treatment of orthopedic diseases, are also interested in taking the necessary precautions to protect and improve people’s mobility.
What is Orthopedics and Traumatology?
Orthopedics and Traumatology deals with problems related to the skeletal system such as bones, joints, muscles, tendons and ligaments; It is the branch of medicine that deals with prevention, diagnosis and treatment. In this department, patients’ congenital anomalies, injuries, fractures, dislocations, tendon and ligament injuries, joint pains and other orthopedic disorders are treated. Experts working in this field also perform surgical operations and offer definitive treatment solutions. The Orthopedics and Traumatology department provides treatment for people of all ages, especially athletes, the elderly and children.
What Diseases Do Orthopedics and Traumatology Treat?
In orthopedics and traumatology, skeletal system-related diseases of different groups such as athletes, elderly and children are treated. Diseases treated in orthopedics and traumatology can be grouped as follows:
- Orthopedic diseases seen in athletes: This group includes injuries during sports and general athlete diseases. Some of the diseases in the group are: various fractures, dislocations and tears of the meniscus, shoulder rotator cuff tear, hip labrum tear, shoulder joint osteoarthritis, arthroscopic bankart (shoulder dislocation), tendon injuries and many more.
- Orthopedic diseases seen in children: Pediatric diseases treated in orthopedics and traumatology may be congenital or may occur later. Some of these diseases are: congenital hip dislocation, scoliosis (hunchback), flat feet, cerebral palsy, ankle dislocation, muscular dystrophies and various congenital anomalies.
- Orthopedic diseases seen in the elderly: Diseases that can be grouped as orthopedic diseases seen in the elderly are generally seen after a certain age, but can rarely be seen at younger ages. Some of these diseases, which generally occur after a certain age; hip, knee, shoulder and elbow prostheses and infections of these prostheses are osteoporosis (bone loss), rheumatoid arthritis (rheumatism), gonarthrosis (knee arthritis), coxarthrosis (hip arthritis) and herniated disc.
- Orthopedic diseases requiring surgical intervention: Orthopedic diseases include many diseases that require surgical intervention, such as fractures and tumors. Surgeries performed in some orthopedic diseases; Tendon transfers, lengthening of arm and leg bones, tumor operations, amputations and various fracture and dislocation surgeries.
What Causes Orthopedics and Traumatology Diseases?
Orthopedics and traumatology diseases generally occur as a result of injury, deformity or damage to joints, bones, muscles, tendons and ligaments. The causes of orthopedics and traumatology diseases can be listed as follows:
- Sports injuries: Impacts, collisions or sudden movements that occur during sports activities can cause joint and bone injuries.
- Genetic factors: Some orthopedic diseases may occur due to congenital genetic disorders. At the same time, orthopedic problems may occur due to genetic predisposition to some diseases.
- Aging: As we age, bones, muscles and joint tissues weaken and become more prone to diseases such as arthritis and osteoporosis.
- Infections: Infection in bone or soft tissues can cause inflammatory rheumatism and osteoporosis.
- Traumas: Traumatic injuries such as falls, vehicle accidents, cuts, fractures and fractures can cause bone, muscle and joint damage.
- Metabolic diseases: Some metabolic diseases, such as diabetes and gout, can affect bone and joint health and cause various orthopedic problems.
What are the Diagnostic Methods Used in Orthopedics and Traumatology?
In Orthopedics and Traumatology, a physical examination is performed by a specialist doctor after a detailed anamnesis for the diagnosis of diseases. Although the physical examination performed in line with the patient’s complaints provides important information, in some cases, detailed imaging of bone, muscle and connective tissue is required. Therefore, conditions such as fractures, dislocations and tumor formation are diagnosed by using various imaging methods. Diagnostic methods used in Orthopedics and Traumatology are:
- Radiographs (X-rays): It is used to detect fractures, dislocations, bone tumors, infections and other bone problems.
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): It is used to create detailed images of muscles, tendons, ligaments, bone marrow and other soft tissues.
- Computed tomography (CT): CT, used for detailed images of bones, provides a 3-dimensional imaging.
- Electromyography (EMG): EMG, a test used to determine the natural electrical activity of the muscles, determines whether the cause of the disease originates from the muscles.
- Ultrasonography: It is applied to visualize soft tissues such as joints, muscles and tendons.
What are the examinations performed in Orthopedics and Traumatology?
In Orthopedics and Traumatology, various examinations and tests are used to diagnose diseases and create the correct treatment plan. An accurate diagnosis is made by using examinations and tests alone or in combination, depending on the patient’s condition. Some of the tests used in Orthopedics and Traumatology are:
- Bone Densitometer: Bone densitometry, also known as bone scanning, checks the risk of osteoporosis (bone loss) by measuring the mineral density in the bone.
- Arthroscopy: It is a method used to examine the internal structure of the joints and in cases requiring surgical intervention.
- Biopsy: It is a method used for the diagnosis of bone tumors and other abnormal formations.
- Blood tests: It is used in the diagnosis of infection, rheumatic diseases and other systemic diseases related to orthopedics and traumatology.
- Functional tests: Various functional tests are applied by experts to evaluate patients’ muscle and joint mobility, strength and balance.
What are the Treatment Methods Applied in Orthopedics and Traumatology?
Treatment methods applied in Orthopedics and Traumatology vary depending on the patient’s condition and the type of problem diagnosed. After evaluating the patient’s condition, the Orthopedics and Traumatology specialist determines the appropriate treatment method and creates a treatment plan that will give the best results together with the patient. Some common treatment methods used in Orthopedics and Traumatology are:
- Medication: The symptom of orthopedic diseases is reduced and treated by using a variety of medications such as painkillers, anti-inflammatory drugs, muscle relaxants, and antibiotics to treat infections.
- Physiotheraphy: Muscle, tendon and joint problems can be treated with physical therapy methods such as exercises, therapeutic massage applications, electrical stimulation, hot or cold therapy.
- Prosthetics: Especially in cases such as joint calcification, joint function is restored by using prosthetics instead of joints damaged for various reasons.
- Surgical treatment: Surgical intervention may be required in the presence of fractures, dislocations, ligament injuries, joint problems, bone tumors and other serious problems.
- Documentary treatment: Treatment can be applied by injecting medication directly into bones, joints and soft tissues with a special needle filled with medication.
- Orthoses and Prostheses: Orthopedic shoes, bone corrective devices, various leg and arm prostheses, and protective documentation devices can be used according to the needs of the patients to increase the patient’s functionality.
Since orthopedic diseases give much more successful results when diagnosed and treated early, symptoms should be taken into consideration and a specialist doctor should be seen as soon as possible.