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diabetes during pregnancy

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diabetes during pregnancy

What is gestational diabetes? Gestational diabetes, unlike type 1 and type 2 diabetes, is a type of diabetes that occurs during pregnancy and resolves after pregnancy. However, it has also been observed that women with gestational diabetes later develop type 2 diabetes. Gestational diabetes can also be defined as varying degrees of glucose tolerance disorder seen in pregnant women. In pregnant women, fasting blood sugar is expected to be below 90 mg\dl, postprandial blood sugar to be below 120 mg\dl and HbA1C value to be below 6%. Above these values ​​are called gestational diabetes.

People at high risk for gestational diabetes include:

  • Those who have a first-degree relative with diabetes
  • being obese
  • Having gestational diabetes in previous pregnancies
  • African Americans, Asian women, Latinas
  • Cortisone use during pregnancy
  • History of poor glucose tolerance before pregnancy

How is gestational diabetes diagnosed?

Glucose challenge test is used in the diagnosis of gestational diabetes. In the glucose load test, the patient is given 50 g of sugar and the glucose level is checked 1 hour later. If blood sugar exceeds 140 mg/dl, a 100-g sugar loading test is performed. During this test, blood sugar is checked at one, two and three hours. Having at least two values ​​above 140 mg/dl is sufficient to diagnose gestational diabetes. Pregnant women at risk for gestational diabetes should be evaluated for diabetes as soon as possible after pregnancy is confirmed. 24-28 weeks in non-risky pregnancies. Diabetes screening should be done every week.

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What are the risks of diabetes during pregnancy for the mother and baby?

Maternal risks:

  • spontaneous abortion
  • hyperglycemia
  • hypoglycemia
  • organ damage
  • preeclampsia
  • urinary tract infection
  • severe anemia
  • cesarean birth
  • postpartum bleeding
  • Postpartum tissue infections

Risks to the baby in the womb:

  • congenital anomalies
  • developmental delay
  • The baby has too little or too much water
  • duck jealousy
  • Early birth
  • birth trauma

Risks for the newborn baby:

  • respiratory distress
  • hypoglycemia
  • Jaundice
  • Death

How is diabetes treated during pregnancy?

Pregnant women who are diagnosed with diabetes during pregnancy should monitor their blood sugar regularly. The target fasting blood sugar level should be below 90 mg/dl, and postprandial blood sugar should be below 140 mg/dl at the 1st hour and 120 mg/dl at the 2nd hour. Medical nutrition therapy should be applied in gestational diabetes. The aim of this treatment is to ensure that the pregnant woman gains adequate weight and to prevent blood sugar from rising.

Pregnant women should exercise regularly. Exercise increases muscle mass and increases the sensitivity of tissues to insulin. The exercises should not force the pregnant woman. Insulin can be used to treat diabetes in pregnant women. Oral diabetes medications are not recommended for pregnant women.

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