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How is testicular cancer diagnosed and treated?


How is testicular cancer diagnosed and treated?

Testicular tumor, which is one of the most common malignant tumors in men aged 15-35, accounts for 1-2% of all cancer types in men. When the factors causing the disease to occur were investigated, it was seen that both genetic and environmental factors were effective. Among these factors that lead to testicular cancer, undescended testicular disease plays the biggest role, and it can be said that undescended testicular disease is seen in approximately 10% of patients with this cancer. Even if this disease, which can be treated at an early age, is corrected with a surgical operation, the probability of the patient facing a malignant tumor at a later age does not change. It should be known that the risk of testicular cancer increases 5-15 times in individuals with undescended testicular disease, and they should be checked regularly starting from childhood.

What are the symptoms of testicular cancer?

  • A mass or swelling that can be felt by touch and is usually painless is one of the first symptoms that occur with testicular cancer. However, in some cases, pain may also occur.
  • In 30-40% of patients, a slight tingling or feeling of heaviness may occur in the lower abdomen, anal area or testicular sacs.
  • Approximately 10% of patients with testicular cancer develop intratesticular bleeding or tumor-related testicular infection. This situation causes the patient to complain of acute pain that is very severe and increases rapidly.
  • Other symptoms that occur vary depending on the spread of the disease and the body tissues it has spread to. For example; In 10% of patients, the tumor spreads to the lymph system and causes mass development in the neck area.
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If any of these symptoms are observed, a doctor should be consulted and a definitive diagnosis should be made as a result of detailed examination and tests.

What are the stages of testicular cancer?

  • Stage A: This is the stage of cancer where the tumor is limited to the testicles and has not spread to any part of the body.
  • Stage B: In this stage, the tumor spreads to the lymph nodes behind the abdominal membrane.
  • Stage C: This stage, in which the tumor spreads to the peritoneum or to tissues such as lung, liver, brain and bone, is called the last stage of the disease and the mortality rate can reach up to 59%.

How is testicular cancer treated?

  • Three different treatment methods are applied for stages A and B: surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The basis of surgical treatment is the removal of cancer cells in the testicles in the operating room environment. It is preferred after radiotherapy and chemotherapy applications, and in some cases, surgical treatment.
  • The first choice in the treatment of stage C testicular cancers is usually combined chemotherapy. If tumor residue is detected during examinations after a sufficient dose has been administered, surgical treatment can also be applied after chemotherapy.


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